YUVA SHAKTI BANARAS/ June 25, 2015/ Science & Spirituality/

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Ramayana and Mahabharata are household books in India and the heroes appearing in these two epics are very well known. While many of us remember the five Pandavas and their deeds, we can remember only a few of the Kauravas like Duryodhana and  his brother Dushashana. We are unable to remember the names of  the rest of Duryodhana’s brothers.

I thought it would be of help if I compiled a list of  all the 101 Kauravas, born of Gandhari, wife of  Dhritarashtra, the blind king of Hastinapur. (Hastinapur today is a small village near Meerut in Uttar Pradesh. It has many Jain temples and only a handful of  structures and all of them in ruins associated with the great city that it was during the Mahabharata period.)

However, before naming all the Kauravas, here is a story of their birth.

Nearly 3,500 years ago, Sage Vyasa had come to Hastinapur. The then queen of Hastinapur, Gandhari, looked after the sage so well that he was pleased by her devotion. “Ask for any boon”, he told Gandhari.

The Queen wanted 100 sons and asked for it.

Gandhari became pregnant but even after two years she did not deliver any baby. Meanwhile, another queen of Dhristra had already delivered a baby who came to be called Yudhistra.

Subsequently, Gandhari delivered a lump of flesh. Deeply disappointed she decided to throw it away. Vyasa then intervened and told her that his boon could not go in vain. He asked her to get 100 jars and placed a piece of flesh in each one of those  jars filled with ghee.

Gandhari replied that she wanted a daughter too apart from the 100 sons. Vyasa nodded in approval and cut the lump if flesh into 101 pieces. He then asked Gandhari to wait for two more years before opening the jar.

Two years passed and when an anxious Gandhari opened the first jar, she found a baby boy whom she named Duryodhana. According to Aadhi Parva, (Chapter 114, Sloka 17) when Duryodhana started crying, several animals too started howling. Vidura, an adviser to Dhritarashtra, said it was an evil omen and asked Gandhari and Dhritarashtra to abandon it. But that was not to be and the rest as they say is history or rather Mahabharata. (Duryodhana’s real name was Suyodhana and he changed it to Duryodhana which means unconqurable)

When the Kauravas were being taken out of the jars, Bheema was born to Kunti in the forest. After 100 sons, Gandhari took out Duhshala, a baby girl, from the 101st jar. Check out the Adi Parva (The book of the beginning)  in the Mahabharata which deals with the birth of the Pandavas, Kauravas and other related aspects Duhshala married Jayadratha who was killed by the Pandavas during the Mahabharata war.

Yuyutsu was the son of Dhritarastra from his marriage with a Vyasa woman Sauvali. He was younger than Duryodhana and elder than the rest of the ninety-nine Kuru brothers and Dushala. Eventually, he was the only son of Dhritarashtra who survived theKurukshetra war. After the war, he took charge as the guardian of King of  Hastinapur.

Sauvali was a maid servant in the royal household and she used to attend on Dhitrarastra. The king fell for the maid’s charm she gave birth to Yuyutsu. This was the time when Gandhari was having problems delivering her children. (The Kauravas were not friendly towards their step brother and kept taunting him about his caste). Yuyutsu took  the side of  the Pandavas in the war with his brothers and he is the only one of them to have survived.

The Mahabharata has 18 Parvas and each one refers to a specific issue or subject. The fifth parva deals with the preparations by both the Pandavas and Kauvaras for the epic war. This is called Udyog Parva. The subsequent four Parvas deals with the Kurukshetra war starting with the Bheesma Parva, Drona Parva, Karna Parva and Shalya Parva which deals with the events of the last day of the war. Apart from these 18 Parvas, there is another parva (this is an appendix) called Harivamsa Parva which details the events in the life of Krishna which are not contained in earlier parvas, particularly the Mausala Parva which deals with the destruction of the Yadava clan, the submergence of Dwaraka and the events leading to Krishna and Balarama leaving the mortal world.

Historians date the Mahabharata war to 3067 BC. For those sceptics who say the Mahabharata is only a work of fiction, here is some food for thought. The Mahabharata mentions that the southern kingdoms of Pandyas and Cholas took part in the war and that they were on the side of the Pandavas.

Excavations by Dr. S R Rao of Bangalore at Dwarkara have revealed the existence of a city that was submerged. Fragments of pottery and stone pillars have been recovered. Indraprastha is nearDelhi and it was in this area that the Purana Qila is constructed. Here too excavations have yielded artifacts dating to the Mahabharata period.

Duryodhana was killed by Bheema after the war had been won. Bheema challenged Duryodhana to a mace fight (Gada Yuddha) and killed him. Bheema also killed Dushashana during the war. It is said the Duryodhana did not cry when all his brothers were killed in the war by Bheema. The only time he wept inconsolably was when Arjuna slew Karna.

It was Sahadeva who killed Shakuni. The Mahabharata says Sahadeva first killed Shakuni’s son Uluka. When Shakuni started to run away, Sahadeva taunted him about the dice game that he had rigged and killed him with a spear.

Today, Kurukshetra is in Haryana state and the battleground covers several areas. There are more than 360 sight seeing places associated with the Mahabharata in the vicinity of Thaneswar or Tanesar and Kurukshetra towns. Some of the areas I have been able to come out with are Jyoti Sar where Krishna preached Bhagavath Geeta to Arjuna. There is the progeny of a banyan tree under which Krishna revealed the Geetha.  It is on the Pehowa Road and is 12 kms from Kurukshetra town.

Bheeshma Kund

This is the place where Bheeshma was felled by Arjuna’s arrows. Arjuna shot an arrow into the ground to quench Bheeshma’s thirst as he lay on a bed of arrows. It is 12 kms from the town ofKurukshetra which is well connected to Delhi .

Coming back to the main theme of this article, here is a list of the Kauravas

  1. Duryodhana
  2. Dussaasana
  3. Dussaha
  4. Dussalan
  5. Jalagandha
  6. Sama
  7. Saha
  8. Vindha
  9. Anuvindha
  10. Durdharsha
  11. Subaahu
  12. Dushpradharsha
  13. Durmarshana
  14. Durmukha
  15. Dushkarna
  16. Vikarna
  17. Sala
  18. Sathwan
  19. Sulochan
  20. Chithra
  21. Capachithra
  22. Chithraaksha
  23. Chaaruchithra
  24. Saraasana
  25. Durmada
  26. Durvigaaha
  27. Vivilsu
  28. Vikatinanda
  29. Oornanaabha
  30. Sunaabha
  31. Nanda
  32. Upananda
  33. Chithrabaana
  34. Chithravarma
  35. Suvarma
  36. Durvimocha
  37. Ayobaahu
  38. Mahabaahu
  39. Chithraamaga
  40. Chitrakundala
  41. Bheemavega
  42. Bheemabela
  43. Vaalaki
  44. Belavardhana
  45. Ugrayudha
  46. Sushena
  47. Kundhaadhara
  48. Mahodara
  49. Chithrayudha
  50. Nishamgi
  51. Paasi
  52. Vrindaaraka
  53. Dridavarma
  54. Dridakshatra
  55. Somakeerthi
  56. Anthudara
  57. Dridasandha
  58. Jarasandha
  59. Sathyasanda
  60. Sadasuvaaka
  61. Ugrasravas
  62. Ugrasena
  63. Senani
  64. Dushparaja
  65. Aparajita
  66. Kundasai
  67. Visalaksha
  68. Duraadhara
  69. Dridahasta
  70. Suhastha
  71. Vatavega
  72. Suvarcha
  73. Adityaketu
  74. Bahawaasi
  75. Nagadata
  76. Ugrasaai
  77. Kavachi
  78. Kradhana
  79. Kundhi
  80. Bheemavikra
  81. Danurdara
  82. Veerabaahu
  83. Alolupa
  84. Abhaya
  85. Dhridhakarmavu
  86. Dhridharathaasraya
  87. Anaadhrushya
  88. Kundhabhedi
  89. Viraavi
  90. Chithrakundala
  91. Pradhama
  92. Amapramaadhi
  93. Deerakharoma
  94. Suveeryavaan
  95. Dheerkhabaahu
  96. Sujaatha
  97. Kaanchanadhwaja
  98. Kundhaasi
  99. Virajasa
  100. Yuyutsu
  101. Dussala (Daughter)




Shastra means sacred treatise or scripture. All the Shastras of India have their origin in the Vedas. Later on in the epic Mahabharata and the Puranas these Shastras are explained nicely and elaborately. Let us see here the original Medical science present in India during the Vedic era, the Mahabharata and the Puranas. Medical science is presented in the books of Ayurveda as a separate Shastra; however I find that the original medical science present in the Vedas, the Mahabharata and the Puranas is far more superior to the Ayurveda. The Vedas are composed in the Vedic era extending from 23960 years B.C to 5560 BC. The Mahabharata is composed during 5560 BC and the Puranas still later.1, 3, 7

we shall precede chronologically from the Vedas to the Puranas. In the Rigveda lot of medical advances are seen recorded if observed critically. During 1976, I found mentioned in the Rigveda, that a horse was developed from another horse and a cow was developed from skin of a cow. This miracle was done by three brothers called as Rubhus. I told this finding to an Augustus audience of scientists and doctors during May 1976; when all of them laughed and said this is impossible even for today’s science then how can it be in Vedic era? At that time the word ‘clone’ was not coined at all.

And in 1997 one Irish scientist from Edinburgh, U.K., prepared a lamb from udder of a sheep, the technique being called as ‘Cloning’. Was that not possible for our scientists? If the Indian scientists believed in the Vedic Truths they could have done this miracle, but they did not believe and did not try. The Vedas have given the principle that another animal can be produced from an animal’s skin. The principle came true in 1997, when Dolly was cloned from udder; that means from the skin of the lamb. Some scholars criticize that when foreign scientists discover or invent something, you say that it was in the Vedas. For those scholars I would like to tell that the same Rubhus, who were the human beings as told in the Rigveda 1-110-2,4, made their old parents youthful again (Rigveda 1-20-4,1-110-8,4-33-3,4-35-5,4-36-4,4-39-9,1-161-3,7,1-111-1,3-60-3) .Giving  youth fullness to an old animal is not yet done by the modern science up to 2005 A.D. The miracle of Rubhus was similar to that of Ashvinau, who rejuvenated old sage

Chyavana. (Rigveda 1-116-10). How can one deny a fact having so many references? We have to accept the superiority of Vedic sages in the physical sciences, and our scientists have to experiment on such Vedic concepts.

The first step in their work on cows was to produce a cow, which yielded copious milk. (RV 1-20-3). This fact shows that Rubhus were working on some living cows. Probably the cows then, were not giving as much milk as present days’ cows. This is quite possible because female elephants, camels, deer, donkeys, sheep and mares do not give a good quantity of milk and therefore human beings cannot depend on them for milk. Similarly cows also would not have been giving profuse milk at that ancient Vedic time. Therefore, Rubhus might have taken that project of cattle rearing as a ‘Vrata’(ozr), might have worked on the project scientifically and got success in breeding a cow, which produced copious milk. This might be a root of genetic engineering.

The Rigveda has recorded how systemically the Rubhus worked on the project ‘cow’. Rig. 1-111-1 tells that the Rubhus gave new mothers to orphaned calves. This fact definitely shows that Rubhus were working on cows. RV.1-161-3 states that Rubhus were fully engrossed in the work of creating a cow etc. and therefore they refused to attend a Yajna. However, they promised to attend the Yajna after completing the work. This statement suggests that Rubhus were working on the project for a long time and were not interested in minor works like Yajnas. This throws light on the importance of their work. For that project they protected cows like good sons, organized mothers and supported cow shed. (Bhasa भास) (RV. 4-33-4). For their great research they had to maintain a cow shed and protect their cows, just like a good son protects his mother. For their experiments one cow was not sufficient. They needed many cows. Therefore, they organized cows in great numbers, which were kept safe and protected in the cowsheds. During their experiments many cows might have died, leaving behind their calves orphaned. For those orphans they had to give new mothers and for that reason they organized mothers. (Apinshat RV. 4-33-4).

To produce plenty of milk a cow must have her calf nearby. This psychology of cows must have been noted by them so that they worked on mothers and calves. They must have examined human mothers and children also while doing that research. (RV. 1-111-1)

While doing this type of research on cows and calves, Rubhus attained a great knowledge and were inspired to produce a living cow from a cow’s skin. This was held by the sages as a divine work of great talents. Hence it cannot be neglected as a toy making. A hidebound man without thinking seriously may say that Rubhus prepared a toy, having a shape of a cow, from some hide. But then that work would not have been held with high esteem as is done by the Rigveda. Moreover, toy making needs no preliminary pains of working continuously on cows and calves for a prolonged period, neglecting Yajnas, as was done by Rubhus. Again, the Rigveda says that Rubhus made a living cow which was made a mother by producing a calf from it. (RV. 1-110-8). That newly prepared cow was named as ‘Vishvaroopa’ and it was ‘Vishvajuvam’ (RV. 4-33-8), which means matching with the world. It was similar to the other cows in the world. Bruhaspati accepted this cow Vishvaroopa happily, as a gift, which was created by Rubhus.(RV. 1-161-6).

The Rubhus created a cow from skin of a cow. (RV.1-161-7, 3-60-2, 4-36-4). It was the first ever production of a living clone, from a part of a body namely skin of a cow. The modern science has now proved it possible by producing a lamb Dolly from udder of a sheep. Udder is nothing else but a part of skin. The modern science is not clear whether the lamb, produced in a womb of a sheep, was from the skin of the same sheep or the skin was from some other sheep. Therefore we cannot blame the Rigveda for not giving the full details. Moreover, the Rigveda has preserved the knowledge for at least 25000 years.1

Then how can we expect all the fine details about an experiment done 25000 years ago. The seed of the knowledge is preserved by the Vedic Seers, we have to work hard on that seed so as to get its fruits.

The Rubhus produced another clone by their supreme intellingence.(RV. 3-60-2). They created a horse from another. (RV. 1-161-7). The Rigveda not recorded from which part of a horse they produced another horse. One may say that a horse may be produced by copulation of a horse with a mare. But in that case no sensible person will ever say that Rubhus created a horse. It is a nature’s creation. In the Rigveda the verb used is ‘Atakshat’ This verb may suggest carpentry; but that horse was not created from wood or timber, it was created from another horse. (RV. 1-161-7). It took involvement of Rubhus for a prolonged period. (RV.1-161-3). Therefore carpentry is out of question. Then the only thing remains that the Rubhus cloned a horse from another horse.

To achieve that knowledge Rubhus worked with horses too. (RV. 1-111-1). To begin with they produced two horses, and trained them to be yoked to a chariot. (RV. 1-20-2). These two horses were presented to Indra. They were very fast and powerful. (RV. 4-35-5). After this work they produced a horse from another horse with their intellectual skill. (RV. 1-161-7, 4-33-10). That horse was called as ‘Hari’ and was presented to Indra, who accepted it. Hari was yoked to a chariot. (RV. 1-161-7). This fact proves that Hari was a real living horse, and not a toy.

Considering all these facts we have to admit that the creation of a horse ‘Hari’ from another horse and creating a cow ‘Vishvaroopa’ from a skin of a cow were experiments of cloning, just like that of producing a lamb Dolly from a sheep. During 1997 many newspapers compared the scientists, who prepared Dolly by cloning, with the Gods. In the same way the Rubhus were compared with the Gods by the Vedic sages. (RV. 1-161-6, 7).

The same Rubhus had divided one ‘Chamas’ (pel), which was prepared by the God Twashta, into four parts.(RV.1-20-6, 1-110-5, 4-33-5, 4-35-3,4, 4-36-4) I think that ‘Chamas’ means an urn containing life; because the word ‘Chamas’ is formed of two components Cham + Asa. The verb ‘Cham’ pe~ means to drink, to eat. The verb ‘Asa’ vl~ means to live, to exist. Therefore, Chamas means a thing, which eats and drinks to live. It means in the modern language a primary cell, full of life or a fertilized ovum. Modern science has done this miracle of producing four animals from a single fertilized ovum, not in India, but in foreign countries, though the basic concept is Vedic. RV 1-110-3 calls it ‘Chit-Chamasa’ fpr~ pel . ‘Chit’ means energy or rather life energy. From this we can imagine a pot containing life energy. It is nothing else but a living cell of a living animal or a plant. The basic unit of life is a living cell. Therefore Chit-Chamasa means a cell, full of life

Soorya, the Sun gave ‘Amruta’( ve`r ) in a Chamasa. Amruta means an immortal thing, Brahman or Atman. Amruta also means life, because life is a part and parcel of Amruta Brahman or Atman. Therefore a Chamasa full of Amruta means a cell full of life. Any cell is a pot or a vessel, minute in form, but it contains life. Therefore, Chamasa means a cell full of life, a living cell. Chamasa cannot be an ordinary pot as supposed by other scholars, because any ordinary pot cannot be divided into four parts. The famous Ishavasya Upanishad tells about Hiranmaya Patra, which refers to body of a living animal or a living cell.

A living cell has four walls in which is stored a fluid called as Protoplasm. This cell may be called as Chamasa, because it contains Amruta i.e. life in it. A living cell or an embryo is prepared by God, Twashta. Twashta had produced such a Chamasa or a living embryo. Rubhus tried to divide that embryo.

While doing that experiment the eldest brother said, “We can make two cells from the original one.” (RV. 4-33-5). The modern science has proved that an embryo can be divided into two, so that two animals can be produced. However, the younger brother said, “We can make three.” He said so because he observed that out of the two cells, which the eldest brother saw, one cell had divided into two. Therefore there were three cells present. The youngest brother observed more, thought more and exclaimed, “We can make four.”

Let me explain here the facts. An embryo is a fertilized egg. It is a living cell, which has a capacity to divide and re-divide to form billions of cells, which arrange themselves in a particular way to mould into an animal at its final stage. The first cell divides into two cells. Each of these two cells has a capacity to divide into two cells each. Each of these four cells has a capacity to produce a fully developed animal. This is proved by experiments by the modern science. The experiments were carried out on a sea animal called as Salamander. A fertilized egg of a Salamander was taken and observed when it gave rise to two cells. When these two cells were separated apart by a fine needle and kept separately in separate petri dishes, they grew more and divided and re-divided to become two salamanders. A similar experiment was carried out again. This time the prime embryo divided to produce two cells. These two again divided to produce four cells. These four cells were separated and grown separately, when four Salamanders were formed. A similar experiment might have been done by the Rubhus.

They observed one embryo, which divided into two cells. Therefore, the eldest brother said that they can produce two animals or two Chamasas. On hearing him the younger one went eagerly to see the state. Till then, one of the two cells had divided into two, so that he could see three cells. Hence he said that three Chamasas can be made. After him the youngest brother peeped. By that time the second cell was also divided and he could see four cells. Therefore, he proposed to prepare four cells or animals from the original one Chamasa.(RV. 4-33-5). These four cells were separated by a superfine and sharp instrument (RV. 1-110-5) and grown in four separate vessels so that four animals came into existence. Twashta wanted to produce one animal, but Rubhus produced four animals from a single zygote or a fertilized ovum.

Working on the Vedic principles the sages in the Puranic period prepared a human Clone named as ‘Pruthu’, from one dead king Vena.(Vishnu Purana 1-13-8,9,33 to 39) In the modern era a human clone is not yet developed either from a living person or a dead. Modern science dreams that it can be done and the foreign scientists are after it; but the Indian scientists are not even thinking of it. Modern science says that an exact copy of Einstein could be produced by cloning. But I say that it is not possible. Bodily that clone may resemble Einstein; but may not be as intelligent, because there is precedence in India, which shows that from a villain king Vena, a good-natured Pruthu was cloned. Mind and intelligence depend upon the previous deeds or Karmas as told in the rebirth theory, which is discovered by the ancient India, in Vedic era and has no parallel in the modern science. Here I want to point out that the name ‘Pruthu’ is a very scientific term, because it means an extension. The root ‘Pruth’ means to extend, so ‘Pruthu’ means an extension. The extension was from only one person Vena. The same is the process in cloning, which is an extension of only one animal. Normal offspring are not extensions of only one, they come after union of a male and a female. The word ‘Clone’ has no such root meaning. The Puranas say that the sages did churning of a thigh or a hand. Churning means ‘Manthana’. It is not only mechanical churning using a churner, but includes ‘Vichara-Manthana’, strenuous mental contemplation, along with dissection of dead body. By the strenuous intellectual efforts along with skill of hand, the seers produced a clone from a dead king Vena. The Puranas or the Vedas have not reported from tissue the clone was produced. But please note that in the present experiments it is not reported from which tissue of the udder the clone Dolly was produced. Recent reports state that the Stem cells are used for cloning an animal. The stem cells can be supposed to be the Vedic Chamas.

It is important to note that in the ancient experiment an abnormal clone ‘Nishada’ was produced, who had small head and large body. In the modern experiments, too, abnormal clones are produced. Many modern clones have died immediately. The survival rate of clones is minimal. (London news 11-4-2002. Yuwa Sakal 12-4-02).( It is reported in the Vishnu Purana that the Nishada, though an abnormal clone, could live long and could produce children.

So far up to July 2005, no clone from a dead animal is produced by the modern science, though it is a dream of science; but Pruthu was a clone produced from a dead king ‘Vena’. We have ample scope to try in this field.

A male clone is developed from a male in the past history. It is not yet done by the modern science. Two different clones were produced from two different parts of one body in the past. This is not yet done in the modern era.

Shrimad Bhagawata (4/15) states that the sages, later, also had cloned a girl from the left hand of king Vena. This girl later married Pruthu. Such type of experiment of producing a male and a female from a dead male is not yet done in the modern science.

Similar other clones are also reported in the Puranas. Lord Ganapati was produced from the ‘Mala’ (ey), which means the superficial layers of skin of Parvati. This is possible according to the modern science. However, here a male is cloned from a female. Whether it is possible or not is not conceived by the modern science. But I think it is possible. Science knows that a single dose of ‘ X’ chromosome produces a male, while a double dose of X chromosome produces a female. Parvati might have used her skin-cell with two X chromosomes in its nucleus. She might have removed that nucleus having XX and replaced it by a nucleus of her genetic cell or an ovum, which contained a single X chromosome. This might have produced a male clone Ganapati. Ahi-Ravana and Mahi-Ravana used to produce Rakshasas from blood drops. It might be cloning from the white blood corpuscles, which contain nuclei. On 1st May 1999, Saturday, there appeared news that Japanese scientists have prepared two clones from cells of cow’s milk. If the cells from milk can be cloned, it is certainly more possible to clone an animal from the blood cells.

Other achievements like Parthenogesis, Test-tube-baby etc are also reported in ancient literature of India. The technique of division of Chamasa might have been used by sage Vyasa in producing 100 Kaurawas and their sister Dusshala. Gandhari became pregnant naturally from her husband Dhrutarashtra. However she did not deliver a child even after nine months were completed. By that time Kunti gave birth to a child named as Yudhishthira. Therefore Gandhari became angry because her son’s right to the throne was lost. That right went to Yushishthira, the first- born. Total two years passed but Gandhari did not deliver a child. Therefore, burning with anger, Gandhari aborted her foetus. In fact it was not a foetus, not a developed child; but a mole, a mass of living cells having no shape like a human child. As soon as the sage Vyasa heard about her abortion, he came immediately, took the aborted cell mass in possession and carried on further work over it. He divided that mole, it is said. This means that Vyasa dissected the mole carefully and found out normal living cells, which he kept separately in ‘Ghruta Kumbha’(घृत कुंभ).Ghruta Kumbha does not mean an ordinary pot of clay, filled with Ghee. ‘Ghruta’ means a nutrient medium supplying life energy, which was kept in a special Kumbha, a highly sophisticated urn. The normal living cells were implanted one each in a separate Kumbha. There were 101 cells. Those cells were grown separately in vitro, i.e. out of any living body, in Ghruta Kumbhas or nutrient urns. In due course children were born, 100 Kaurawas and their sister Dusshala. (Mahabharata, Adi, 115)

Normally, a fertilized ovum starts dividing. One cell divides in to two. Two cells divide to produce four cells and so on, till billions of cells are produced. In the initial stage, every new -born cell has a capacity to divide and re-divide till a full grown foetus forms. Rubhus took four- cell stage and produced four animals. However, Vyasa was not doing an experiment of cloning on one fertilized ovum. He had collected one aborted mass of cells, which contained some normal living cells. Out of these primary cells, Vyasa found 101 cells, which had a capacity to begin multiplication from the original stage. Therefore all the 101 cells developed in to 101 children. The modern science does not know up to what stage of multiplication the newly born cells have a capacity to multiply from the beginning so as to form a child. But from this experiment of Vyasa it appears that up to 128 -celled stage, each cell may have a capacity to begin multiplication anew to produce a child. It seems that Vyas found 101 living cells out of 128 cells. These cells may be termed as Stem cells of the modern science.

Thus sage Vyasa relied on the principle of ‘Chamasa division’, laid down by Rubhus in the Rigveda and worked further to give birth to 100 Kaurawas. The Rigvedic science was traditionally used then, by the expert scientists, till at least, up to the time of the Mahabharata, 5561 years BC. Sage Vyasa was a scientist himself; he composed the epic Mahabharata to narrate the true history. Following Vyasa the modern scientists must work on the principles stored in the Rigveda and other ancient literature, so as to produce new miracles.

Modern scientists boast and dream that they can produce a clone of Einstein who will be exactly like the famous scientist Einstein. However, looking towards the Vedic precedence I think that the clone of Einstein may look exactly like Einstein, bodily, but may not be as brilliant in intelligence as Einstein. I say so because Vena was a tyrant, but Pruthu was a nice king. The mental state was far different in the clone Pruthu than king Vena. This happened because the mind cannot be cloned. Body may be cloned because, as the Rigveda (1-161-9) says, the Pruthvi, Teja and Apa Tattwas of the body cell can be divided and extended to form a clone. Mind is above these three Tattwas and so mind cannot be cloned. After a body is formed, mind comes to stay in it. This is explained by the theory of Panch-Koshas of Taittiriya Upanishad.

The Anna-Rasa-maya Kosha i.e. the physical body can be cloned. After the formation of the Annamaya Kosha, the Pranamaya Kosha comes in it. Within this Pranamaya Kosha is present the Manomaya Kosha. Inside it is the Vijnanamaya Kosha and still inside is the Anandamaya Kosha. The Pranamaya Kosha with all the internal three Koshas comes from some other body after its death, and enters into a new body for rebirth.(Aitareya Upanishad 2 ) He has to pay for his past Karmas. Therefore even though Einstein is cloned bodily, his Pranamaya, Manomaya, Vijnanamaya and Anandamaya Koshas may not come in that cloned outer body; some other Pranamaya may enter in it, with his past Karmas and their fruits. Therefore there may be difference in the mind and intellect.

Test tube babies were prepared then. Rigveda (7-33-13) mentions that Agasti and Vasistha were born out of an urn called as ‘Pushkara’(पुष्कर), from the semen of Mitra-Varuna. The word ‘Pushkar’ is formed of two componants. ‘Push’ means to nourish and ‘Kara’ means to do. The urn, which nourishes or a vessle which has nourishing nutrient matter, is Pushkara. From such a Kumbh Agastya and Vasistha were born. They had no mother. They were developed only from a male. Modern science accepts theoretically that a sperm is fully genetic matter and so it can reproduce. An ovum contains nutrient matter.

Draupadi and Dhrushtadyumna got birth from an utensil only from the semen of king Drupada. They had no mother. Drona was born from the semen of Bharadvaja in an urn known as Drona, without any help of any mother. Such an experiment is not yet done in the modern science. All these experiments were done in vitro, i.e. out of any living body of any animal. On the contrary in the modern experiments only fertilization of an ovum is done in a test tube, while further growth takes place in the uterus of a living woman after implantation of the fertilized ovum in it, and therefore, the baby is born out of a living uterus, not out of a test tube. In the ancient experiments no mother was used. Therefore the babies were termed as ‘Ayonija’. Further observations were also done in the Mahabharata period that one test tube baby Drona was married to another test tube baby Krupi and the behaviour of that couple was observed. They lead normal married life producing one son Ashvatthama. As a control test Krupa, the test-tube baby, was wedded to a normal girl. This couple too behaved normally. All these records of the Mahabharata Adi Parva, show that there were real test tube babies and the experiments were carried further till they reproduced child. Such an experiment has not yet been done in the modern science; because the eldest test tube baby, who was born in 1979, is not yet married.

An embryo of Devaki was taken out and implanted in the uterus of Rohini. Rohini delivered a child, which was termed as Samkarshana (संकर्षण), who later became famous as Balarama, Krishna’s elder brother. The word Samkarshana is a scientific term, which explains the process behind his birth. [Hariwansha, Vishnu 4, Vishnu Purana 5-1-75, Bhagawata 10-2-13]

Kunti used a technique of Parthenogenesis. She stimulated her ovum with the help of solar energy and produced Karna. (Mahabharata Adi 111.) Other energies were used to produce other children. Such experiments are done in the modern science to produce young ones only in the lower animals and not yet in the human beings, but Mahabharateeya scientists used the technique in the humans. The technique is termed as Parthenogenesis by the present day European scientists. The term Parthenogenesis contains a word ‘Partha’ which means ‘of Prutha’. Prutha is Kunti’s second name. Was this a chance happening or did they coin the term from Kunti’s experience? In the modern times the technique of Parthenogenesis produced all the females from a female. But the Mahabharata technique produced sons from Kunti as well as Madri. Does this not show supremacy over the modern technique? Durwasa, the original scientist might have told Kunti what to eat during pregnancy period because sex is determined on the rate of metabolism and the quality of food. Insects like Vasps, bees, ants do produce males when the eggs are not fertilized by sperms from a male. This is a puzzle before the modern science, but it might have been solved by Durvasa and used in the experiment on Kunti. We must learn from these true stories.

Life science was fully studied, so the sages knew about the chromosomes which were termed as ‘Gunavidhi’.(Mahabharata Shanti 308) This is a perfectly scientific term; because these principles control the characters i.e. Guna and also Vidhi, the functions, of a person. Even the chromosome number 23, specific for human beings is recorded, in the Mahabharata and the Bhagawata.4 It is also stated that these principles give rise to genetic diseases. A list of genetic diseases is given in the Mahabharata, which is similar to the list in the modern science. Bhagawata (3/6/1-7) has recorded that these 23 Gunavidhi of a male gamete enter the female gamete and unite with her 23 Gunavidhi to stimulate them so that a zygote is formed. Then the zygote, which is termed as ‘Kalala’, goes on dividing once, ten times, three times. It means that the cell divides once to give rise to two cells. This happens ten times so that two raised to the power of ten cells form. This happens thrice, at three layers namely Endoderm, Mesoderm and Ectoderm. This multiplication produces two raised to the power of thirty cells, which are really present in a new born baby, according to the modern science. How could the sages achieve such a vast and microscopic knowledge? All the stages of growth of an embryo are given in the Bhagawata commencing from the first day up to the full term. These stages concur with those proved by modern science, and sometimes supersede the modern science. Bhagawata records that heart of a foetus begins its work in the second month of pregnancy. This fact was unknown to the modern science till December 1972. Medical science presumed till then, that the foetal heart began in the fifth month of pregnancy, but then with the use of Di-sonar apparatus it was confirmed that the foetal heart begins in the second month of pregnancy. This is now well known due to ultrasonography. Aitareya Upanishad, which is composed in about 6000 B.C., much earlier than the Bhagawata [of 1652 B.C.] also states the same fact.6

The Bhagawata (2/1022, 3/26/55) states that ears are responsible for recognizing the directions. This is proved by the modern science after 1935, when the Labyrinth or the Vestibular apparatus was discovered in the internal ear.

Surgery was far advanced in the Rigveda era, therefore it is recorded that Queen Vishpala was fitted with an artificial lower limb when it was severed in a battle.(Rg.1-116-15), and was made fit, again, to fight in a battle. Modern surgeons do fit an artificial limb; but a patient takes about a year to walk with it, and he cannot take part in a battle again.

There is a surgical concept of transplant operations in India since the Rigveda. One sage Daddhyanga got some disease in his head. To cure it Ashvinau took his head away and in its place implanted a head of a horse for a while.(Rg.1-116-12). After repairing his human head they replaced it again removing the horse’s head. The sage became normal. One may laugh at this statement because at present no such operation on head or brain is possible. But is it really impossible? At present, heart can be transplanted. During an operation on heart, it is totally stopped by freezing and with the help of Heart-lung machine circulation is maintained and after correcting the defect in the heart it is connected to the circulation, removing the heart-lung machine. In the same way, was not it possible to implant a horse’s head in place of human head to maintain the give and take of sensory and motor impulses and to continue the vital functions, which are similar in man and horse? Serum of horse is tolerated by humans, then nervous tissue may also be tolerated. We have to experiment on this technique.

Testis of a goat was implanted on Indra. Modern surgeons must try this technique, but being unknown to the western world our surgeons will not even think on it.

Because of this Vedic tradition of surgery, Sushruta could develop plastic surgery to repair severed or deformed nose – Rhinoplasty. He used a flap of skin from forehead to repair nose. I had an occasion to perform an operation of Rhinoplasty with my senior surgeon Dr. Sulakhe P. B. during 1957. We used a skin-flap from abdomen and transferred it to face and repaired nose, according to the then surgical concept. Fortunately, I was then working as a surgeon in S.T.R. Hospital and Tilak Ayurvedic College, where I read Sushruta Samhita. I suggested using that old technique but it was neglected. Twelve years later one German surgeon read Sushruta and operated accordingly with good results. Since then all the surgeons are using the same technique thinking that it is a German technique. Thus our own seeds of knowledge are neglected. Extension of Life by Space Travel

Shrimad Bhagawata 9-3-27 to 36 gives a story that king Kakudmi went with his daughter Revati to the Brahmaloka to find her a husband. Brahmadewa told him that in a second of his presence in that Loka 27 Tetra-Yugas on the Earth had passed and that there was nobody from his family alive. Brahmadewa advised him to return and wed Rewati to Balarama, who had then born. Accordingly Kakudmi returned with Rewati and gave her to Balarama in marriage. The important scientific points in this story are thus:

  • The two went on another solar system leaving the Earth. They spent one second there, but during that second 27 Tetra-Yugas passed on the Earth. It shows that Vyasa knew that the time scales are different on different planets or solar systems. This is agreed to by the science now.
  • They returned after 27 Tetra-Yugas.Yuga means minimum 2. TETRA-YUGA means four times the Yuga. Therefore 27 x 2 x 4 = 216 years had passed; but still Rewati was in puberty and her father was alive.
  • Aging factor had stopped working on them.
  • After their return, they could not see their descendents, so at least 216 years had passed. They had defeated the death. Their life had extended. The only cause attributed is the space travel to another solar system with tremendous speed. One may not agree that the two actually travelled to some other Loka; but one has to accept the theoretical knowledge present in the story, which is the same as that propounded by Einstein in the 20th century, that if somebody travels with a great speed to another place in the space, it’s or his life extends.
  • Modern science states that some Subatomic particles, whose life is usually a fraction of a second, do come from the space, travelling for many days to the Earth. Even in the present world nobody has travelled to another solar system, even then the theory is accepted by science.This story was altogether neglected. Nobody ventured to find out the scientific truth in the concept. Now I have put it before the scholars.There is one more important point for consideration. The Prashnopanishad states at 3/8 that Deity present in the Earth attracts Apana of a living person and helps its action. Adi Shankaracharya comments on this verse that if the famous Goddess of the Earth did not help Apana and did not hold down by its attraction force or Gurutwa i.e. Gravitation, then this physical body would have floated in the space or fallen anywhere. Thus the Prashnopanishad of 6000 years B.C. and Shankaracharya of, at least, 800 A.D. knew the gravitation force of the Earth much before Newton of 18th century A.D.

    Apana forces down anything through the living body. It forces the food and drinks from the mouth downwards. (Aitareya Upanishad 1-3-10). Apana forces down urine, faeces, flatus, and foetus with the help of gravitation. It is proved beyond doubt by science. According to Aitareya 1-3-10, death is also a function of Apana.6 if gravitation is absent there is difficulty in the functions of Apana. This is also proved by the modern space research. Naturally, if gravitation is absent, Apana would be unable to cause death by forcing down Prana from the physical body. This is the reason why death was defeated in the space travel of Rewati and Kakudmi.
    In the story of Rewati, Brahmaloka is mentioned. Where was it ? I think that it may be in the constellation of Abhijit because its Deity is Brahma. Hence a planet moving around Abhijit i.e. the star Vega might have been named as Brahmaloka. Vega is 26 light years distant from us. It is surprising to see the news in the Indian Express dated 5th May 1984 that the modern Soviet scientists have found the presence of a solar system around the star Vega. They found that Vega is girdled by swarm of particles, grains of dust and even stones. These observations are based on the measurements taken by an international satellite ‘Iras’. The slow rotation of Vega similar to our Sun confirms that it may have a planetary system. It might have been called as Brahmaloka. Therefore it is our duty to work hard on the ancient scientific concepts.

    The Aitareya Upanishad (1-1-4) states how the organs develop in the foetus. It says that first the mouth comes into existence, then the nostrils, then eyes, then ears, then heart, Nabhi i.e. navel, then the penis. The same order of development is given in the Bhagawata. It is surprising that the same order is discovered by the modern science, recently.

    The Bhagawata (3/31) narrates how the embryo develops. It states that after 5 days a Budbuda appears. Modern embryology calls this as ‘Bubble stage’ Bubble means Budbuda. On 10th day ‘Karkandhu’ is formed, says Bhagawata. ‘Karkandhu’ means a fruit ‘jujube’ or ‘zizyphus’, called as ‘Bora’ in Marathi, or ‘Bera’ in Hindi. Embryology calls it a spherical mass of cells. On the 15th day an egg is formed, says Bhagawata. Embryology accepts it by describing that stage as having oval shape.

    The Bhagawata (3/31/3) states that the head of the foetus is formed at the end of the first month. This appears true in the light of the modern investigations in embryology. The Bhagawata gives further information that as soon as the nostrils develop there appears Prana and vocal chords also develop. Modern science has the same opinion.

    The Bhagawata (2/10, 3/6, 26) clearly tells that foetal heart begins working in the second month of pregnancy. I was shocked to learn that, because I had studied in the modern books that the foetal heart begins in the fifth month of pregnancy. I taught the same to my students from 1957 to 1972. However, during December 1972, the news flashed in the Medical times that Dr. Robertson, Queen Mother’s hospital, Glasgow, England, used disonar apparatus to tap the heart sounds of the foetus and he discovered that the foetal heart begins working during 7th and 8th weeks of pregnancy. 8th week means the second month.

    Bhagawata (3/31) tells that first the penis is developed, then the anus. This is also according to the modern science.

    The Bhagawata (2/10/22, 3/26/55) as well as the Aitareya Upanishad (1/1/4 ; 1/2/4) tell that the ears developed, in them the hearing sense appeared and the directions are born by the ears. Apparantly the statement appears ridiculous if you think that the directions are east, west, north, south etc. Such directions have no relation with the ears. However, here the directions are personal e.g. in front, at back, to the right or left, up or down. These six directions are original, personal and they are sensed by the ears. The Bhagawata is composed around 1650 years BC and the Aitareya is composed around 6000 years BC. But the statements recorded in them are found true by the modern science during 1935 AD when Ross and Tait wrote an essay showing that the Labyrinth or the vestibular apparatus situated in the internal ear recognise the directions. He discovered that there are three semi-circular canals in the internal ear which are at right angles to each other and which are filled with lymph. As our head tilts towards left, the pressure in the canal in the left side increases giving a signal to the brain, which concludes that the head is tilted to the left side. Is it not miraculous that the discovery of 1935 is recorded in scriptures, thousands of years old? It proves that the medical science was well advanced during the ancient era in India.

    While describing when the organs and their functions come into being, the Aitareya Upanishad (1/1/4; 1/2/4) states that when Nabhi came into being, there appeared Apana Vayu and from Apana the Death appeared.6 If we think deeply we have to accept this fact. See how.

    Nabhi or navel is a part of abdomen. It comes into existence during the second month of pregnancy. Thus it seems that the death also comes into existence during second month of pregnancy. Up to the second month all the cells are multiplying rapidly. When one cell divides into two, we cannot say that the first cell died. Up to the second month each and every cell exists independently. It takes nourishment, oxygen and all other requirements for living by itself. For that purpose it does not depend on anything else. It divides and re-divides to form many cells. There is no death to these cells. But in the second month, the Nabhi appears and begins functioning. The function of Nabhi i.e. Umbilical chord is to supply nourishment, oxygen etc to all the parts of the developing body. This Nabhi means the Connecting Stalk of the modern embryology. The connecting stalk takes all the requirements from the mother and supply to the growing parts. From this time onwards all the cells become dependent on the connecting stalk for their requirements to live. If the connecting stalk does not supply properly, they are bound to die. Thus the death begins working since the second month of pregnancy. When the connecting stalk begins its work, there appears differentiation of the cells and particular cells develop a particular tissue. Such cells cannot live independently. Due to this dependence, death appears. So it is true that the death appears from second month of pregnancy onwards.


The Functions of Apana Wayu

It is usually said that Apana digests everything eaten up. It is quite true, but digestion is not the only function of Apana. To gulp or swallow is a function of Apana. The word ‘Apana’ has two components. ‘Apa’ means downwards. ‘Ana’ means to carry. Actually, Apana takes food and liquids downwards. While digesting the food Apana moves it downwards through the gut. The remnants i.e. faeces are thrown downwards out of anus, the Guda. Urine also is carried downwards from Kidneys through Ureters to Urinary Bladder and then still more down through Urethra and passed out of body, downwards to the ground. Thus ingestion, digestion, micturition, defaecation are the functions of Apana and all are downward movements. In addition parturition or delivery of child is also attributed to Apana. Apana takes the baby downwards from uterus via maternal passages. Thus delivery is a function of Apana. All these functions are helped by the gravitation force of the Earth. This fact is stated in the Prashnopanishad 3/8, which says, ‘The Deity of the Goddess Earth attracts and helps Apana of a person.’

Prashnopanishad is composed around 5761 years Before Christ. I say so because one Hiranyanabha is shown to be present then, who was the 15th descendent of Dasharathi Rama.(Bhagawata 9-12-3,4). I have proved, on astronomical evidences, the birth date of Rama to be 4th December 7323 BC, Rama won the war against Rawana on 15th November 7292 BC. Rama died at the age of 64 years. 15 generations means about 1500 years, because all the descendents are not recorded in the royal genealogies. Only the enthroned kings are enlisted.

This proves that the gravitational force of the Earth was known to the Indians 7000 years earlier than Newton, who is credited with the discovery of the gravitational force. The famous Nasadeeya Sukta of the Rigveda, also, indicates knowledge of the gravitational force. Adi Shankaracharya, who was at least 1000 years prior to Newton also, has recorded his knowledge about gravitation in his commentary on the Prashnopanishad. Shankaracharya says, ‘If the famous Goddess of the mother Earth had not helped Apana by attraction downwards, this body would have floated anywhere in the space.’ Both these records show that the ancient Indians had knowledge of the gravitational force of the Earth on the body.

It is true that the gravitational force does help Apana to defaecate, micturate, digest, deglutate. We can experience this fact ourselves. Take a sip of water and drink in sitting posture. We notice that it easily goes down the oesophagus. Now take another sip of water, lie down and try to drink it. We will find difficulty in drinking, because gravitational force is not helping Apana. Now take one more sip of water, take an upside down posture and drink. Water will not go down the oesophageal tract. On the contrary it may come out of nostrils. This happens because the gravitation of the Earth does not help Apana in upside down posture, where Gravity works against Apana. Every person finds difficulty in passing out urine and stools in lying down position, because Apana does not help.

In the absence of the gravitational force in the space the astronauts face a great difficulty to pass urine and faeces. It is not yet possible to develop toilets in the spaceships to facilitate the astronauts.

Thus the sages were correct to state that Apana is helped by the Earth’s gravitation. If this appears true, their further statement that Apana causes the death must also be true. At the time of the death, Apana forces down the Pranamaya Kosha and pushes it out of body. If we observe that at the time of death, many times, urine and stools are passed out, we have to believe that death is the result of the function of Apana. During death even the foetus also is expelled from the uterus, because Parturition is a function of Apana, which takes a fierce form to force out the Prana for effecting death.

From the fact that Apana is responsible for death, we can imagine that if Apana is absent, death can be avoided or delayed. Therefore in the space death can be defeated for want of gravitational force which is essential for Apana to work. It is for this reason that Rewati remained in Puberty, though she returned from Brahma Loka after 216 years of the Earth, and her father lived even then, to see her marriage with Balarama.

Thus it seems that medical and biological sciences were very well developed along with other physical sciences in ancient India and all that knowledge is stored in our Shastras. We have to decifer their meanings on the basis of modern science. Scientists should do this work because they are well versed with the present scientific knowledge, which is helpful to expose the knowledge concealed in the Shastras. Our Rishis were, in fact, scientists; therefore only the science scholars can reveal what the sages have said. If our scientists do so, we can progress much in the scientific field.

Here, I have presented only a few points from the ancient Indian medical science, though I have discovered a vast ocean of scientific knowledge in the ancient Shastras of India.


Niyoga – Miraculous birth Conceptions
Niyoga is a process of conceiving a child, when a person is dead or incapable to attain fatherhood can  designate or request another person to make her women to conceive a child. The selection of appointing person for this duty likely be elected on the basis of respect and admiration towards concern.This process of conceiving is to protect ‘dharma’ or righteousness of family. It is not to fulfill the pleasure.
Artificial insemination without joining any intercourse and Cloning the fertilization of egg in laboratories,Stem cells are the other methods which comes parallel with niyoga process.



Traditional Stories:

  • In the epic Ramayana, Kalmashapada who is ancestor of Lord Rama. Kalmashpada was the son of Raghu from his name Raghuvamsh name originated.Rama is a descendant of Kalmashapada. Kalmashapada queen Madayanti done niyoga process with sage Vashista to bear a child named as Ashmaka.
  • In the epic Mahabharata, Bharata kingdom queen Satyavathi called her son Sage Vyasa to do Niyoga process for her widow daughter-in-laws Ambika, Ambalika and her maid Parishrami to produce Dhritarashtra, Panduraj and Vidura as sons. Again Panduraj was incapable to give a child to her wives Kunti and madri, they got pandavas by performing Niyoga process.
  • Again Vyasa protected unfertilized egg which came out from Queen gandhari womb by keeping them in Ghee pots to give births to 101 Kauravas.
  • In Bhagavatha- 4 skanda, Their is a story of King Vena, Due to Vena curel intentions and evil activities great sages killed him. But to establish a king or legal heir for kingdom, sages churned thighs and arms of king vena to give births to Prithu, Archi and a demon. These children were born without intervention of female.
  • Another story which revolve on birth of King Balarama who is brother of Lord Krishna.In the presence of Vasudeva( father of Krishna & Balarama) Devaki 7th womb was transferred to Rohini by Yogamaya. Balarama was taken birth from Rohini.


 Interesting Facts:

  • Kshetrabijam, to beget a son on his wife was also explained in Kautilya Arthasastra.
  • Child who born in this niyoga process is considered the child of Wife and Husband. The selected person for niyoga process will not become father of child.
  • The born child was called as kshetraja – child of wife and husband.
  • The selected person will not allow to make relationship with mother or child in future.
  • The selected person will allow only three times for niyoga process in his life time.
  • The persons who participate in niyoga process, their whole bodies will be covered by ghee to eliminate lust from their minds.
  • According to Manusmriti this process was forbidden. And treated it as social custom, not as religious custom.


  • In Ramayana, the origin of Ashmaka may give an idea of Artificial insemination. Injecting a sperm in womb to fertilize egg without any physical intercourse. Even pandavs birth may be related to Artificial insemination.
  • The story of Kauravas will remind us Test-tube baby. Which means an egg is fertilized by sperm in outside environment.
  • In Bhagavatham, The story of king Vena will raise thoughts on Cloning. Reproducing genetic xerox copy of a person by propagating an organism or cell.
  • Balarama birth may be taken place with technology of surrogate baby or rent a womb. When health related issues arouse in pregnant lady she can transfer womb to another womb to protect the baby which is called as Surrogate baby.
  • In this criteria Foster father differs from biological father. But child remains as a son of foster father.


  1. The Date of the Rigveda – by Dr. P.V.Vartak, – Vishveshwaranand Indological Journal, Vols xxxii, Pts i-iv, June-Dec. 1993-94, published by Vishveshwaranand Vishva Bandhu Institute of Sanskrit and Indological Studies, Punjab University, Sadhu Ashram, Hoshiarpur.
  2.  Vedic Astronomy, page 121, authored by Dr. Vartak P.V., Facets of Vedic Studies, edited by Bidyut Lata Ray, 2000, Kaveri Books, New Delhi.
  3.  Astronomy to fix the dates of Sanskrit Texts or Historic events, authored by Dr. P.V.Vartak, pages 71 to 78 – Research in Indology, a new perspective, edited by Dr. Rabindra Kumar Panda, Bharatiya Kala Prakashan, Delhi. – 1998
  4. 2 Scientific Interpretation of the Upanishads (in Marathi) by Dr. P.V.Vartak.
  5. Scientific Dating of the Mahabharata War, authored by Dr. P.V.Vartak. Published by the Veda Vidnyana Mandal, 497 Shaniwar Peth, Pune, 411030
  6. Astronomy to fix the dates of Sanskrit Texts or Historic events, authored by Dr. P.V. Vartak, pages 71 to 78 – ‘Research in Indology, a new perspective’, edited by Dr. Rabindra Kumar Panda, Bharatiya Kala Prakashan, Delhi. – 1998
  7. Swayambhu, a Marathi and a Hindi book, authored by Dr. P.V.Vartak.
  8. Ancient Indian Embryology- authored by Dr. P.V.Vartak, printed in the Maharashtra Medi- cal Journal, March 1973, on the pages 379-391
  9. Chromosomes in Ancient India, authored by Dr. P.V.Vartak, printed in the Maharashtra Medi- cal Journal January 1972.
  10. The Medical Times, December 1972 – Dr. Robinson, Queen Mother’s Hospital, Glasgow, England
  11. Scientific Interpretations of the Upanishads, volume 1, Aitareya, in Marathi, authored by Dr. P. V. Vartak
  12. Scientific Dating of the Ramayana and the Vedas – authored by Dr. P. V. Vartak – Published by the Veda Vidnyana Mandal, 497 Shaniwar Peth, Pune 411030.